The www/pecl-pledge,php72 port

pecl72-pledge-2.0.2p0 – PHP wrapper for pledge(2) and unveil(2) (source)

Description

This PHP extension adds support for OpenBSD's pledge and unveil system calls.

The PHP userland functions pledge() and unveil() are wrappers around the
OpenBSD system calls. These functions provide a powerful mechanism to
defend the PHP runtime and userland against some common exploits.
WWW: https://github.com/tvlooy/php-pledge

Readme

$OpenBSD: README,v 1.1.1.1 2018/11/20 10:28:52 sthen Exp $

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| Running ${PKGSTEM} on OpenBSD
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This PHP extension adds support for OpenBSD's pledge and unveil system calls.

The PHP userland functions pledge() and unveil() are wrappers around the OpenBSD
system calls. These functions provide a powerful mechanism to defend the PHP
runtime and userland against some common exploits.

The theory
==========

The pledge(2) system call allows a program to restrict the types of operations
the program can do after that point. Unlike other similar systems, pledge is
specifically designed for programs that need to use a wide variety of operations
on initialization, but a fewer number after initialization (when user input will
be accepted).

All pledge(2) promises are documented in the pledge(2) manual page.

The unveil(2) system call restricts the filesytem view. The first call to
unveil(2) restricts the view. Subsequent calls can open it more. To prevent
further unveiling, call unveil with no parameters or drop the unveil pledge if
the program is pledged.

Web SAPI usage
==============

Be careful what to pledge/unveil! Using this module can cause a situation of
self-denial-of-service.

If PHP runs with mod_php, using pledge/unveil impacts an entire Apache child
process. If pledge/unveil is used in php_fpm, it will impact the entire process
for the whole lifetime of the process, not just one request.

Architectural tips
==================

Make sure you don't load extensions that you don't need in the web SAPI. For
example: PHAR, PCNTL, etc. can be useful for hackers, don't load them.

For performance reasons it is a good idea to do as little work as possible in
the web SAPI. Jobs can often be scheduled in a queue and run asynchronously from
the CLI SAPI. For example processing and resizing uploaded images does not need
to run in the web SAPI. Jobs that need to do calls to an external service can
fail and should implement retry mechanisms. These can slow down the web SAPI.

By using the asynchronous approach, the web SAPI loses functionality. Extensions
like PHAR, PCNTL, GD, imagick, curl, ... can be unloaded. Less lines of code
become accessible in the web facing part of the website and the attack surface
gets smaller.

The goal is gaining understanding of exactly what functionality is needed by
each use-case, so each use-case can be isolated. Pledge/unveil can then be
implemented specifically for each use-case.

A php_fpm process can implement pledge/unveil in a safe manner when the
pm.max_requests configuration flag is set to 1. This means the process will
respawn after each request. The default, and recommended, value for this flag
is 0 for endless request processing. Because pledge/unveil affects the process
and not just the request, different fpm pools can be configured for each type of
work. Especially with unveil the developer can make sure system binaries are
unavailable, jobs that don't have to write the filesystem will not be able to do
so, jobs that don't have to read user uploaded files will not be able to do so,
...

In the web SAPI, avoid getting killed in subsequent requests by checking if a
certain file or directory is still available and only call unveil if it is. Eg:

if (is_dir('/etc')) {
    unveil(__DIR__, 'r');
}

Limiting network calls is not possible with pledge on a destination basis. But
a workaround is to use pf to enforce rules on your fpm users, eg:

block out proto {tcp udp} user your_fpm_user
pass out proto tcp to $mysql_db port 3306 user your_fpm_user
pass out proto tcp to $some_rest_api port 443 user your_fpm_user

But again, in the example above network calls can be avoided in the web SAPI if
mysql runs on a domain socket and work involving API's is scheduled and
processed by a CLI job instead. You can use this technique for CLI jobs as well.

Maintainer

Tom Van Looy

Categories

lang/php www

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